Haɓaka ƙarfin ajiyar batir yana da girma sosai, amma me yasa har yanzu akwai ƙarancin?

Lokacin bazara na 2022 shine lokacin mafi zafi a duk ƙarni.

Yana da zafi sosai har gaɓoɓin gaɓoɓi sun yi rauni kuma rai ya fita daga jiki;zafi sosai har duk garin ya koma duhu.

A daidai lokacin da wutar lantarki ke da wuya ga mazauna yankin, Sichuan ya yanke shawarar dakatar da wutar lantarki na masana'antu na tsawon kwanaki 5 daga ranar 15 ga watan Agusta, bayan da aka kaddamar da katsewar wutar lantarki, kamfanonin masana'antu da dama sun dakatar da samar da wutar lantarki tare da tilasta wa cikakken ma'aikata hutu.

Tun daga karshen watan Satumba, ana ci gaba da fama da karancin batir, kuma yanayin kamfanonin ajiyar makamashi na dakatar da oda ya karu.Karancin ma'ajiyar makamashin ya kuma tura da'irar ajiyar makamashi zuwa ga kololuwa.

Bisa kididdigar kididdigar ma'aikatar masana'antu, rabin farkon bana, yawan batir ajiyar makamashi na kasa ya wuce 32GWh.2021, sabon ajiyar makamashi na kasar Sin ya kara da jimillar 4.9GWh kawai.

Ana iya ganin cewa karuwar ƙarfin samar da baturi na ajiyar makamashi, ya kasance mai girma sosai, amma me yasa har yanzu akwai ƙarancin?

Wannan takarda ta yi nazari mai zurfi kan musabbabin karancin batirin makamashin da kasar Sin ke fuskanta da kuma alkiblarsa a nan gaba a fannoni uku masu zuwa:

Na farko, buƙatu: sake fasalin grid mai mahimmanci

Na biyu, da wadata: ba zai iya gasa da mota

Na uku, nan gaba: canzawa zuwa baturin kwarara ruwa?

Bukatar: Mahimman gyaran grid

Don fahimtar buƙatar ajiyar makamashi, gwada amsa tambaya ɗaya.

Me yasa manyan katsewar wutar lantarki suka saba faruwa a kasar Sin a cikin watannin bazara?

Daga bangaren bukatar, duka masana'antu da kuma amfani da wutar lantarki na zama suna nuna wani mataki na "rashin daidaituwa na yanayi", tare da lokutan "kololuwa" da "trough".A mafi yawan lokuta, samar da grid na iya biyan buƙatun wutar lantarki na yau da kullun.

Koyaya, yanayin zafi mai zafi yana ƙaruwa da amfani da kayan gida.A lokaci guda kuma, kamfanoni da yawa suna daidaita masana'antun su kuma mafi girman lokacin amfani da wutar lantarki shima yana cikin bazara.

Daga bangaren samar da wutar lantarki, samar da iska da wutar lantarki ba su da tabbas saboda yanayin yanayi da yanayi na yanayi.Misali a Sichuan, kashi 80% na wutar lantarkin Sichuan na zuwa ne ta hanyar samar da wutar lantarki.Kuma a bana, lardin Sichuan ya fuskanci matsanancin zafi da bala'in fari da ba kasafai ba, wanda ya dauki lokaci mai tsawo ana fama da matsalar karancin ruwa a cikin manyan kwanukan ruwa, da karancin wutar lantarki daga tashoshin samar da wutar lantarki.Bugu da kari, matsanancin yanayi da abubuwa kamar raguwar wutar lantarki kwatsam kuma na iya sa injinan iskar ba su iya aiki yadda ya kamata.

Dangane da babban gibin da ke tsakanin samar da wutar lantarki da bukatu, domin a kara yawan amfani da wutar lantarki don tabbatar da samar da wutar lantarki, ajiyar makamashi ya zama wani zabin da babu makawa don bunkasa sassaucin tsarin wutar lantarki.

Bugu da kari, ana sauya tsarin wutar lantarki na kasar Sin daga makamashin gargajiya zuwa sabon makamashi, hasken wutar lantarki, wutar lantarki da iska da hasken rana ba su da kwanciyar hankali saboda yanayin yanayi, kuma yana da matukar bukatar adana makamashi.

A cewar hukumar kula da makamashi ta kasar, karfin da kasar Sin ta samu ya kai kashi 26.7 cikin 100 na yanayin shimfidar wurare a shekarar 2021, wanda ya zarce na duniya.

Dangane da martani, a cikin watan Agustan 2021, Hukumar Raya Kasa da Gyara ta Kasa da Hukumar Kula da Makamashi ta Kasa sun ba da sanarwar karfafa gwiwar kamfanonin samar da wutar lantarki don gina nasu ko siyan karfin kololuwa don kara girman hanyar sadarwa, suna ba da shawarar cewa

Bayan ma'auni fiye da garantin haɗin grid na masana'antar grid, da farko, za a keɓance ƙarfin kololuwa gwargwadon ƙimar pegging na 15% na iko (sama da tsawon sa'o'i 4), kuma za a ba da fifiko ga waɗanda aka keɓe bisa ga ƙimar pegging. na 20% ko fiye.

Ana iya gani, a cikin mahallin ƙarancin wutar lantarki, don magance matsalar "iska da aka watsar, hasken da aka watsar" ba za a iya jinkirta ba.Idan wutar lantarki da ta gabata ta goyi bayan ƙarfafawa, yanzu dole ne a aika da matsa lamba na manufofin "carbon biyu" akai-akai, amma babu wurin yin amfani da wutar lantarki da wutar lantarki da aka adana, ana amfani da su a wasu wurare.

Saboda haka, kasa da manufofin fara a fili karfafa da "kasafi na peaking", da karin da rabo daga cikin kasafi, za ka iya kuma "fifi grid", shiga cikin kasuwar lantarki ciniki, samun m kudin shiga.

Dangane da manufofin tsakiya, kowane yanki yana ƙoƙari sosai don haɓaka ajiyar makamashi a tashoshin wutar lantarki bisa ga yanayin gida.

Kayayyakin: Ba za a iya yin gasa da motoci ba

Hakazalika, ƙarancin batir ɗin ajiyar tashar wutar lantarki, ya zo daidai da haɓakar sabbin motocin makamashi da ba a taɓa gani ba.Tashoshin wutar lantarki da ajiyar mota, duka biyun suna da babban buƙatu na batir phosphate na lithium baƙin ƙarfe, amma kula da siyarwa, tashoshin wutar lantarki masu tsada, ta yaya za a iya kama manyan kamfanonin kera motoci?

Don haka, ajiyar tashar wutar lantarki a baya akwai wasu matsalolin da suka bayyana.

A gefe guda, farashin shigarwa na farko na tsarin ajiyar makamashi yana da yawa.Tasiri ta hanyar samarwa da buƙatu gami da sarkar masana'antu farashin albarkatun ƙasa ya karu, bayan 2022, farashin duk tsarin haɗin gwiwar tsarin ajiyar makamashi, ya tashi daga yuan 1,500 / kWh a farkon 2020, zuwa yuan 1,800 na yanzu.

Farashin sarkar masana'antar ajiyar makamashi gabaɗaya ya karu, ainihin farashin gabaɗaya ya fi 1 yuan / watt hour, inverters gabaɗaya sun tashi 5% zuwa 10%, EMS kuma ya tashi da kusan 10%.

Ana iya ganin cewa farashin shigarwa na farko ya zama babban abin da ke hana gina ginin makamashi.

A gefe guda, sake zagayowar dawowar farashi yana da tsayi, kuma riba yana da wahala.Zuwa 2021 1800 yuan / kWh tsarin tsarin ajiyar makamashi na ƙididdigewa, injin ajiyar wutar lantarki caji biyu caji biyu, caji da fitar da matsakaicin farashin 0.7 yuan / kWh ko fiye, aƙalla shekaru 10 don dawo da farashi.

A lokaci guda, saboda ƙarfafawar yanki na yanzu ko sabbin makamashi na wajibi tare da dabarun ajiyar makamashi, adadin 5% zuwa 20%, wanda ke ƙara ƙayyadaddun farashi.
Baya ga dalilan da ke sama, ajiyar tashar wutar lantarki yana kama da sabbin motocin makamashi za su ƙone, fashewa, wannan haɗarin aminci, kodayake yuwuwar yana da ƙasa sosai, ƙari bari ƙarancin ƙarancin abinci na tashar wutar lantarki ya karaya.

Ana iya cewa "karfin kasafi" na ajiyar makamashi, amma ba dole ba ne manufofin ma'amaloli da ke da alaƙa da grid, don haka yawan buƙatar tsari, amma ba cikin gaggawa don amfani ba.Bayan haka, yawancin tashoshin samar da wutar lantarki mallakin gwamnati ne, don tabbatar da tsaro shine muhimmin abu na farko, suna fuskantar tantance kudi, wa zai so a gaggauta dawo da irin wannan dogon aikin?

Bisa ga halaye na yanke shawara, umarni da yawa don ajiyar makamashi na tashar wutar lantarki, ya kamata a sanya su, rataye, jiran ƙarin bayanin manufofin.Kasuwar tana buƙatar babban baki don cin kaguwa, amma ku sami ƙarfin hali, bayan haka, ba yawa ba.

Ana iya ganin cewa matsalar ajiyar makamashi ta tashar wutar lantarki don tono zurfi, baya ga wani karamin bangare na karuwar farashin lithium na sama, akwai babban bangare na hanyoyin fasaha na gargajiya ba su cika amfani da yanayin tashar wutar lantarki ba, ta yaya. ya kamata mu magance matsalar?

A wannan lokacin, maganin batir ɗin ruwa ya shigo cikin haske.Wasu mahalarta kasuwar sun lura cewa "rashin ajiyar makamashin da aka shigar na lithium ya kasance yana raguwa tun Afrilu 2021, kuma karuwar kasuwa yana canzawa zuwa batura masu gudana".To, menene wannan baturin kwararar ruwa?

Nan gaba: canzawa zuwa batura masu kwarara ruwa?

A taƙaice, batura masu kwararar ruwa suna da fa'idodi da yawa waɗanda suka dace da yanayin shukar wutar lantarki.Batura masu kwarara ruwan ruwa na gama gari, gami da duk-vanadium batura masu kwarara ruwa, batura masu kwarara ruwa na zinc-iron, da sauransu.

Ɗaukar duk-vanadium batura masu kwarara ruwa a matsayin misali, fa'idodin su sun haɗa da.

Na farko, tsawon rayuwar sake zagayowar da kyawawan caji da halayen fitarwa sun sa su dace da yanayin ajiyar makamashi mai girma.Rayuwar zagayowar caji/ fiddawar duk-vanadium ruwa kwarara makamashi baturi na iya zama fiye da sau 13,000, kuma rayuwar kalanda ya wuce shekaru 15.

Na biyu, iko da ƙarfin baturi sun kasance "masu zaman kansu" da juna, suna sauƙaƙa daidaita ma'aunin ƙarfin ajiyar makamashi.Ƙarfin baturi mai gudana na duk-vanadium yana ƙayyade ta girman girman da adadin tari, kuma ana ƙayyade ƙarfin ta hanyar taro da ƙarar electrolyte.Za a iya samun faɗaɗa ƙarfin batir ta hanyar ƙara ƙarfin reactor da ƙara yawan masu haɓakawa, yayin da haɓaka ƙarfin aiki za a iya samu ta hanyar ƙara ƙarar electrolyte.

A ƙarshe, ana iya sake sarrafa albarkatun ƙasa.Za a iya sake yin amfani da maganinta na electrolyte kuma a sake amfani da shi.

Koyaya, na dogon lokaci, farashin batirin kwararar ruwa ya kasance mai girma, yana hana manyan aikace-aikacen kasuwanci.

Ɗaukar batir ɗin ruwa na vanadium a matsayin misali, farashinsu ya fi fitowa ne daga na'urar reactor da electrolyte.

Kudin electrolyte ya kai kusan rabin kudin, wanda farashin vanadium ya fi shafa;Sauran shine farashin tarin, wanda galibi ya fito ne daga ion musayar membranes, carbon feel electrodes da sauran mahimman kayan aikin.

Samar da vanadium a cikin electrolyte lamari ne mai rikitarwa.Ma'adinan vanadium na kasar Sin shi ne na uku mafi girma a duniya, amma galibi ana samun wannan sinadari ne da wasu abubuwa, kuma hakar narke aiki ne mai gurbata muhalli, aiki ne mai karfin kuzari tare da hana manufofi.Haka kuma, masana'antar karafa ita ce ke samar da mafi yawan buƙatun vanadium, kuma babban mai kera a cikin gida, Phangang Vanadium da Titanium, ba shakka, suna samar da ƙarfe da farko.

Ta wannan hanyar, batir ɗin ruwa na vanadium, da alama, suna maimaita matsalar mafita na tanadin makamashi mai ɗauke da lithium - ɗaukar ƙarfin sama tare da masana'antar da ta fi girma, don haka farashin yana jujjuya sosai akan tsarin cyclical.Ta wannan hanyar, akwai dalili don neman ƙarin abubuwa don samar da ingantaccen maganin baturi mai gudana.

A ion musayar membrane da carbon ji electrode a cikin reactor sun yi kama da "wuyan" guntu.

Dangane da kayan musanya na ion, kamfanonin cikin gida galibi suna amfani da fim ɗin musayar nafion proton da DuPont, wani kamfani mai shekaru ɗari a Amurka ya yi, wanda ke da tsada sosai.Kuma, ko da yake yana da babban kwanciyar hankali a cikin electrolyte, akwai lahani irin su babban haɓakar ions na vanadium, ba sauki don ragewa ba.

Kayan carbon ji lantarki shima yana iyakance ta masana'antun kasashen waje.Kyakkyawan kayan lantarki na iya haɓaka ingantaccen aiki gabaɗaya da ƙarfin fitarwa na batura masu kwarara ruwa.Koyaya, a halin yanzu, kasuwar jin daɗin carbon galibi masana'antun kasashen waje ne kamar SGL Group da Toray Industries suka mamaye.

M ƙasa, ƙididdigewa, farashin batirin ruwa na vanadium, fiye da lithium ya fi girma.

Ma'ajiyar makamashi sabon baturi kwarara mai tsada mai tsada, da sauran sauran rina a kaba.

Epilogue: Mabuɗin karya babban zagayowar gida

Don faɗi kalmomi dubu, ajiyar tashar wutar lantarki don haɓakawa, mafi mahimmanci, amma ba abin da cikakkun bayanai na fasaha ba, amma share tashar tashar wutar lantarki don shiga cikin babban tsarin kasuwancin wutar lantarki.

Tsarin grid na kasar Sin yana da girma sosai, mai sarkakiya, ta yadda tashar wutar lantarki da ke da ajiyar makamashi mai zaman kanta a kan layi, ba abu ne mai sauki ba, amma ba za a iya rike wannan batu ba.

Ga manyan tashoshin wutar lantarki, idan rabon ajiyar makamashi kawai don yin wasu ayyuka na taimako ne kawai, kuma ba shi da matsayin kasuwancin kasuwa mai zaman kansa, wato ba zai iya wuce wutar lantarki ba, zuwa farashin kasuwa da ya dace don siyar da wasu, to. wannan asusun yana da matukar wahala a ƙididdige shi.

Sabili da haka, ya kamata mu yi duk abin da zai yiwu don ƙirƙirar yanayi don tashoshin wutar lantarki tare da ajiyar makamashi don juya zuwa matsayin aiki mai zaman kanta, ta yadda ya zama mai shiga tsakani a kasuwar kasuwancin wutar lantarki.

Lokacin da kasuwa ya ci gaba, yawancin farashi da matsalolin fasaha da ake fuskanta ta hanyar ajiyar makamashi, na yi imanin cewa za a warware shi.


Lokacin aikawa: Nuwamba-07-2022