Batura masu ƙarfi sun zama mafi kyawun zaɓi don batir lithium masu ƙarfi, amma har yanzu akwai matsaloli uku don shawo kan su.

Bukatar gaggawa don rage hayakin carbon yana haifar da saurin tafiya zuwa hanyoyin samar da wutar lantarki da faɗaɗa tura wutar lantarki da hasken rana akan grid.Idan waɗannan abubuwan sun ƙaru kamar yadda ake tsammani, buƙatar ingantattun hanyoyin adana makamashin lantarki za su ƙaru.

Muna bukatar dukkan dabarun da za mu iya samu don magance barazanar sauyin yanayi, in ji Dokta Elsa Olivetti, wata farfesa a fannin kimiyyar kayan aiki da injiniya a Esther da Harold E. Edgerton.A bayyane yake, haɓaka fasahohin ajiya na tushen grid yana da mahimmanci.Amma don aikace-aikacen hannu - musamman sufuri - yawancin bincike an mayar da hankali kan daidaitawa na yaubaturi lithium-iondon zama mafi aminci, ƙarami kuma iya adana ƙarin makamashi don girmansu da nauyinsu.

Batura lithium-ion na al'ada suna ci gaba da ingantawa, amma iyakokinsu ya rage, wani ɓangare saboda tsarin su.Batirin lithium-ion sun ƙunshi na'urorin lantarki guda biyu, ɗaya tabbatacce kuma ɗaya mara kyau, sandwiched a cikin wani ruwa mai ɗauke da carbon (carbon).Lokacin da aka yi cajin baturi da kuma fitar da shi, ana ɗaukar barbashi na lithium (ko ions) da aka caje daga wannan lantarki zuwa ɗayan ta cikin ruwan lantarki.

Matsala ɗaya tare da wannan ƙirar ita ce, a wasu ƙarfin lantarki da yanayin zafi, ruwan lantarki na iya zama mara ƙarfi kuma ya kama wuta.Batura gabaɗaya suna da aminci a ƙarƙashin amfani na yau da kullun, amma haɗarin ya rage, in ji Dokta Kevin Huang Ph.D.'15, masanin kimiyya a rukunin Olivetti.

Wata matsalar ita ce batirin lithium-ion ba su dace da amfani da su a cikin motoci ba.Manya-manyan fakitin baturi masu nauyi suna ɗaukar sarari, suna ƙara yawan nauyin abin hawa kuma suna rage ƙarfin mai.Amma yana da wahala a sanya batirin lithium-ion na yau ƙarami da sauƙi yayin da suke kiyaye ƙarfin ƙarfinsu - adadin kuzarin da aka adana kowace gram na nauyi.

Don magance waɗannan matsalolin, masu bincike suna canza mahimman fasalulluka na batir lithium-ion don ƙirƙirar siga mai ƙarfi, ko ƙaƙƙarfan yanayi.Suna maye gurbin ruwa electrolyte a tsakiya da siririn m electrolyte wanda ya tsaya a kan fadi da kewayon voltages da kuma yanayin zafi.Tare da wannan m electrolyte, sun yi amfani da wani high-ikon tabbatacce lantarki da kuma wani high-ikon ƙarfin lithium karfe korau electrode wanda bai da nisa da kauri fiye da saba porous carbon Layer.Waɗannan canje-canjen suna ba da izinin ƙarami gabaɗaya tantanin halitta yayin da yake riƙe ƙarfin ajiyar kuzarinsa, yana haifar da mafi girman ƙarfin kuzari.

Waɗannan fasalulluka - ingantaccen aminci da mafi girman ƙarfin kuzari- watakila su ne fa'idodin biyu da aka fi sani da yuwuwar batura masu ƙarfi, duk da haka duk waɗannan abubuwan suna nan gaba da fata, kuma ba lallai ba ne a iya cimma su.Duk da haka, wannan yuwuwar yana da masu bincike da yawa suna yunƙurin nemo kayayyaki da ƙira waɗanda za su cika wannan alkawari.

Tunani ya wuce dakin gwaje-gwaje

Masu bincike sun fito da abubuwa masu ban sha'awa da yawa waɗanda ke da kyau a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje.Amma Olivetti da Huang sun yi imanin cewa idan aka yi la'akari da gaggawar ƙalubalen sauyin yanayi, ƙarin la'akari mai amfani na iya zama mahimmanci.Mu masu bincike koyaushe muna da ma'auni a cikin lab don tantance yiwuwar kayan aiki da matakai, in ji Olivetti.Misalai na iya haɗawa da ƙarfin ajiyar makamashi da ƙimar caji/ fitarwa.Amma idan ana aiwatar da manufar, muna ba da shawarar ƙara ma'auni waɗanda ke magance yuwuwar haɓaka cikin sauri.

Kayayyaki da samuwa

A cikin duniyar m inorganic electrolytes, akwai manyan nau'ikan abu guda biyu - oxides mai dauke da oxygen da sulphides mai dauke da sulfur.Ana samar da Tantalum a matsayin samfurin haƙar ma'adinai na tin da niobium.Bayanai na tarihi sun nuna cewa samar da tantalum ya fi kusa da yuwuwar yuwuwar fiye da na germanium yayin hakar tin da niobium.Samar da tantalum don haka shine babban damuwa ga yuwuwar haɓakar sel masu tushen LLZO.
Duk da haka, sanin kasancewar wani abu a cikin ƙasa ba ya warware matakan da ake bukata don shigar da shi a hannun masana'antun.Don haka masu binciken sun binciki wata tambaya mai biyo baya game da hanyoyin samar da muhimman abubuwa - hakar ma'adinai, sarrafawa, tacewa, jigilar kayayyaki, da dai sauransu. Idan aka yi la'akari da cewa akwai wadataccen wadatar kayayyaki, shin za a iya fadada sarkar isar da wadannan kayayyaki cikin sauri ta yadda za ta iya haduwa da girma. bukatar batura?

A cikin nazarin samfurin, sun duba nawa tsarin samar da germanium da tantalum zai buƙaci girma a kowace shekara don samar da batura don 2030 na motocin lantarki.A matsayin misali, rukunin motocin lantarki, wanda galibi ana ambatonsa a matsayin manufa na 2030, na buƙatar samar da isassun batura don samar da jimillar sa'o'i gigawatt 100 na makamashi.Don cimma wannan burin, ta amfani da batir LGPS kawai, sarkar samar da germanium na buƙatar girma da kashi 50% a shekara - tsayin daka, saboda matsakaicin girma ya kasance kusan kashi 7% a baya.Yin amfani da ƙwayoyin LLZO kawai, sarkar samar da tantalum na buƙatar girma da kusan 30% - ƙimar girma sama da matsakaicin tarihin kusan 10%.

Wadannan misalan suna nuna mahimmancin yin la'akari da wadatar kayan aiki da sarkar samar da kayayyaki yayin da ake yin la'akari da yuwuwar zazzagewar ƙarfin lantarki daban-daban, in ji Huang: Ko da yawan kayan ba batun bane, kamar yadda yake a cikin yanayin germanium, haɓaka duka. Matakan da ke cikin sassan samar da kayayyaki don dacewa da samar da motocin lantarki na gaba na iya buƙatar haɓakar haɓaka wanda kusan ba a taɓa gani ba.

Kayan aiki da sarrafawa

Wani abin da za a yi la'akari da shi lokacin tantance yuwuwar ƙima na ƙirar baturi shine wahalar aikin masana'anta da tasirin da zai iya yi akan farashi.Babu makawa akwai matakai da yawa da ke tattare da kera batir mai ƙarfi, kuma gazawar kowane mataki yana ƙara tsadar kowane tantanin halitta cikin nasara.
A matsayin wakili na wahalar masana'antu, Olivetti, Ceder da Huang sun binciki tasirin ƙimar gazawar akan jimillar kuɗin zaɓaɓɓun ƙirar baturi mai ƙarfi a cikin bayanansu.A cikin misali ɗaya, sun mai da hankali kan oxide LLZO.LLZO yana da karye sosai kuma manyan zanen gadon sirara sun isa a yi amfani da su a cikin aiki mai ƙarfi da ƙarfi na batura mai yuwuwa su fashe ko yaɗuwa a yanayin zafi da ke cikin aikin masana'anta.
Don tantance abubuwan tsadar irin wannan gazawar, sun kwaikwayi matakan sarrafa maɓalli guda huɗu waɗanda ke tattare da haɗa ƙwayoyin LLZO.A kowane mataki, sun ƙididdige farashi bisa ga abin da aka ɗauka, watau adadin jimillar sel waɗanda aka yi nasarar sarrafa su ba tare da gazawa ba.Ga LLZO, yawan amfanin ƙasa ya yi ƙasa da na sauran ƙirar da suka yi nazari;haka ma, yayin da yawan amfanin ƙasa ya ragu, farashin kowace kilowatt-hour (kWh) na makamashin tantanin halitta ya ƙaru sosai.Misali, lokacin da aka ƙara 5% ƙarin sel zuwa matakin dumama na cathode na ƙarshe, farashin ya ƙaru da kusan $30/kWh - canji mara kyau idan aka yi la'akari da cewa gabaɗayan ƙimar da ake buƙata don irin waɗannan sel shine $ 100/kWh.A bayyane yake, matsalolin masana'antu na iya yin tasiri mai zurfi akan yuwuwar ɗaukar manyan ƙira na ƙira.


Lokacin aikawa: Satumba-09-2022